VAI Provides the Following Training Courses:

  • CSI 2130/2140 Data Collection

  • CSI AMS Software

  • ISO Category I Certification

  • ISO Category II Certification

  • ISO Category III Certification

  • Field Balancing

  • Operating Deflection Shape (ODS) Testing

Data Collector Training

Data Collector Training is the best way for clients to save money – why pay contractor labor and travel costs?  This training is FREE to clients who contract us to analyze their data for a minimum of 30 machine-trains per month for 12 months. Training includes monitoring student while they collect data in the plant and a detailed electronic training manual for use with CSI’s equipment.

 

ISO Category I, II and III Vibration Training

On-Site ISO Category I, II and III Training is available for an unlimited number of students. The cost for training is fixed; the only additional costs are for student text books and optional ISO exams. The following pages provide list of topics.

TYPICAL VIBRATION SOURCES:

• Sources

• Types of Waveform Vibration

    • Harmonic (Sinusoidal) Motion
    • Periodic (Repetitive) Motion
    • Impulsive (Impacting / Bearing Faults)
    • Cyclic / Repeating Beats
    • Random Noise Energy

• Common Effects of Vibration

• Industry Uses of Vibration Energy

• Types of Measurement and Analysis

 

BASICS OF VIBRATION ANALYSIS:

• Measures and Units of Vibration

    • Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration
    • Mils, Inches/Sec and g’s

• Amplitudes of Vibration

    • Peak, RMS, Peak-to-Peak

• The Response to Vibration Energy

• Measuring Vibration Energy

• Types of Vibration Motion

• Frequencies and Amplitudes

• Harmonic and Periodic Vibration

• Units of Frequency

    • Hz, CPS, CPM & Orders

• Converting Amplitudes of Harmonic Signals

• Basic Vibration Analysis

• Basics of Spectral and Waveform Plots

• Mechanical Vibration Excitation

• Natural Frequencies vs. Critical Speeds

 

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

• Methods of Human Observations

• Noise: What is it?

• Collecting Periodic and Continuous Vibration Data

• How to Select Correct Measure of Amplitude

• Measuring Relative Shaft Displacement

• Measuring Absolute Displacement

• Determining Optimum Frequency Spans (Fmax)

• Use of Proximity Probes

• When to Use Velocity Transducers

• When to use Accelerometers

• Selecting Vibration Sensors and Method of Mounting

• Determining Best Sensor Locations

• Load Zone Measurement Locations

 

MACHINE CHARACTERISTICS:

• General Machine Information

• Sources of Machine Vibration

    • Design and Function:
    • Unbalance
    • Shaft Eccentricity
    • Gear Cogging
    • Electro-Mechanical
    • Flow Generated Noise Energy
    • Reciprocating Machines (Air Compressors)
    • Natural Frequencies & Resonances
    • Thermal Changes (Frost Heaving)
    • Flexible Structures, Components, & Piping
    • Oil Whirl and Whip (and the Difference)
    • Mechanical Stress
    • Hydrodynamic Sources (Water Hammer)
    • Structureborne, Airborne and Fluidborne
    • Fan Belts (Loose and Degraded)
    • Worn Couplings and U-Joints
    • Machining Processes & Construction
    • Installation Sources of Machine Vibration
      • Issues that affect the Alignment
      • True Misalignment
      • Softfoot of Mounting Feet
      • Looseness
      • Excessive Clearances (Bearings)
    • Mechanical Defects and Human Abuse

• Vibration Sources from Rotating Components

    • Bearings: Rolling Element and Journal
    • Centrifugal Pumps
    • Air Handling Units:
      • Fans, Blowers and Air Compressors
    • Gearboxes
    • Machine Tools: Lathes, Spindles, Grinders
    • Electrical AC Motors and Generators
    • Turbines: Steam and Gas

 

VIBRATION TEST EQUIPMENT:

• Oscilloscopes

• Handheld Meters, Data Collectors and Analyzers

• Virtual Test Instruments

• Data Acquisition Instruments / Multichannel Recorders

• Computer Based Vibration Software

 

TYPES OF VIBRATION TESTS:

• Periodic Monitoring & Route Based Trending

• Required Machine Information: Configuration and RPM

• Typical Testing Procedures

• Sensor Mounting and Location

• Personnel, Machine and Production Safety

• Frequency of Periodic Data Collection

• Screening and Trending for Machine Issues

• Establishing Alarm Setpoints

• Detecting Machinery Vibration Issues

• Determining Component Health: How Bad is it?

• When to Performing Acceptance Tests

• How to Determine Natural Frequencies

    • Resonance and Critical Speeds

 

BASIC VIBRATION ANALYSIS:

• Spectral Analysis: Frequencies vs. Amplitudes

• Time Waveform: Amplitudes vs. Time

• FFT Processing

• Time Required to Collect Data Sets

• How Resolution Affects the Data

• Basic Terminology

• Determining Component Operating Speed

• Determining Harmonics (Orders) of Operating Speed

• Electrically Related Frequencies (Motors / Generators)

• Overview of Amplitude Modulation

• Typical Machine Faults

• Natural Frequencies (Resonance and Critical Speeds)

• Component Unbalance

• Misalignment and Issues Affecting the Alignment

• Assembly Looseness

• Mechanical Distortion

• Detecting Beats and Identifying Their Sources

• Rolling Element and Journal Bearing Defects

• Gear-Related Defects

• Electric Motors and Generators

• Detecting Broken Motor Rotor Bars from Sidebands

• Centrifugal Pumps, Fans and Air Compressors

 

HOW TO DETERMINE DEFECT SEVERITY FROM:

• Bearing Housing Amplitudes

• Shaft Vibration Amplitudes

• Gearboxes

• Rolling Element and Journal Bearings

REVIEW OF ALL CAT I MATERIAL

 

BASICS OF ISO CAT II VIBRATION ANALYSIS:

• What Causes Vibration and How Does It Respond

• Overview of Vibratory Motion

• Measures of Vibration Amplitude

• Measuring Vibration Data

• Definition of Phase and How to Measure It

• Machinery Vibration Analysis

• Forces and Excitation

• Natural Frequencies

    • Resonances, Critical Speeds and Mode Shape

• Summary of Topics Covered

 

ACQUIRING QUALITY DATA:

• How to Select the Proper Amplitude Measure

• Performance and Selection of Vibration Transducers

• Selecting Triggering Devices and How to Use Them

• How to Properly Locate and Mount Transducers

• How to Properly Select Frequency Spans (Fmax)

• How to Best Display the Data

• Summary of Topics Covered

 

METHODS OF DATA PROCESSING:

• Types of Test Equipment

    • Oscilloscopes
    • FFT Analyzer
    • Electronic Data Collector

• Types of Data Processing

    • Data Sampling
    • Aliasing
    • Windowing
    • Dynamic Range
    • Averaging

• Setup of Test Equipment

• Summary of Test Equipment and Data Processing

 

ANALYZING MACHINERY FAULT FREQUENCIES:

• Methods of Fault Frequency Analysis

• Faults at 1x Operating Speed and Harmonics

• Faults at non-Harmonics (Rolling Element Bearings)

• Gearbox Faults (Gearmesh)

• Electric Motors and Generators

• Centrifugal vs. Axial Flow Machines

    • Centrifugal & Positive Displacement Pumps
    • Air Handlers, Fans, Blowers, Compressors

• Summary of Machinery Fault Frequencies

 

COMPONENT HEALTH DETERMINATION:

• How Bad is it? Determination based on:

    • Absolute Shaft Vibration (Shaft Stick)
    • Relative Bearing Vibration (Proximity Probes)
    • Absolute Casing Vibration (Casing Mounted Sensor)

• Summary of Component Health Determination

 

TESTING FOR MACHINE DEFECTS:

• Generating Test Plans

• Selecting Test Equipment

• Performing Site Inspections

• Performing Acceptance and Baseline Tests

• Testing for Resonance and Critical Speeds

• Testing for Faults, Machine Health, and Unbalance

• Invoking Vibration Test Specifications

• Considering Sensor Environment and Mounting

• Selecting the Best Display for Machine Defects

• Generating Vibration Health Reports

• Summary of Testing for Machine Defects

 

PERIODIC (ROUTE BASED) MONITORING:

• Prioritizing Machinery for Testing

• Component Configuration Data Needed

• Machinery Selection and Route Creation

• Selecting Measures and Measurement Points

• Testing & Selecting Baseline Data

• Optimum Frequency for Periodic Data Collection

• Selecting Test Equipment (the Good, Bad & Ugly)

• Making Best Use of Your Resources

• Basics of Trending

• Use of Alarms and Alarm Set Points

• Generating Component Health Reports

• Summary of Route Based Monitoring

 

INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE PLANE BALANCING:

• Definition of Single Plane, Static & Couple Unbalance

• Overview of Equipment Needed to Balance

• Performing Pre-Balancing Checks

• Data Collection

• Relationship between Heavy, Hi and Light Spots

• How to Calculate Amount of Trial Weight Needed

• Common Balancing Errors

• How to Use Polar Graph Paper and the Vector Method

• How to Split and Add Balance Weights

• Determining Acceptable Post Balance Amplitudes

• Summary of Basic Machine Balancing

REVIEW OF ALL CAT I AND II MATERIAL

 

Principles of Vibration

• Terms and Definitions

    • Vibration
    • Frequency
    • Amplitude
    • Phase
    • Orders
    • Hz, CPS, CPM and Orders
    • Measures of Amplitude
    • Units of Amplitude
      • Displacement
      • Velocity
      • Acceleration
    • Overall Peak
    • Overall Peak to Peak
    • Spectral and Waveform Plots
    • Natural and Forcing Frequencies
    • Critical Speed and Resonance

• Standard Units for Forces and Motions

• Basic Vibration Signals

    • Harmonic
    • Periodic
    • Impacting
    • Pulsating (Beats)
    • Random

• Sources of Machinery Vibration

• Forces and Imposed Motions

• Sources of Manufacturing Vibrations

• Sources of Maintenance Vibrations

• What Vibration Can do to (or for) us

• Periodic Monitoring

• Calculating Waveform Period and Frequency

• Waveform Terms and Definitions

• Basic Phase Analysis

• Harmonic Conversions

    • Displacement vs. Velocity vs. Acceleration

• Phase Relationship between Amplitude Measures

 

Test Equipment part 1: Sensors

• Accelerometers

• Velocity Probes

• Displacement Probes

• Sensor Sensitivity

• Calculating Signal Strength from Amplitudes

• Calculating Amplitudes from Signal Strength

• Gapping Proximity Probes

• Absolute vs. Relative Displacement

• Relationship of Sensor Size, Fmax and Sensitivity

• Personal Safety Considerations

 

Test Equipment part 2: meters

• Typical Data Formats

    • Overall Values
    • Filtered Values
    • Spectral Plots
    • Time Waveform Plots
    • Overall Amplitude Trend Plots
    • Spectral Trend / Waterfall Plots
    • Bode Plots
    • Polar Plots

• Voltmeters

• Analog and Digital Oscilloscopes

• FFT Analyzers

• Virtual Test Equipment

• Digital Acquisition Instruments

 

FFT and Signal processinG:

• Digital Sampling

• Bins and Lines of Resolution

• Aliasing & Aliased Frequencies

• Windows, Window Factors, and the FFT Process

    • Uniform Window
    • Hanning Window
    • Flattop Window

• Window Shapes vs. Amplitude Uncertainty

• Errors caused by Windows

• The FFT Process

• Lines of Resolution

• Dynamic Range

• Types of Averaging

    • RMS
    • Peak-Hold
    • Synchronous Time
    • Overlap

• Introduction to Orbits

• Calculating Orbit Amplitudes

• Forward and Reverse Loop Orbits

• Selection of Fmax

• Selection of Resolution

• Bins and Lines of Resolution

• Lowest Resolvable Frequency

 

Machinery Vibration Analysis:

• Mode Shapes, Nodes and Antinodes

• Mass Unbalance

• Eccentricity

• Bent Shafts

• Resonance

• Softfoot and Foot-Related Resonance

• Distortion

• Changes in Operating Conditions

• Misalignment

• Looseness, Beats, Bearing Faults

• Journal Bearings, Gear Faults

• Pump, Motor and Fan Faults

• Sidebands

• Cracked / Broken Motor Rotor Bars

• Other Sources of Machine Vibration

• Bent Shafts

• Resonance

• Softfoot and Foot-Related Resonance

• Distortion

• Changes of Operating Conditions

• Misalignment

• Looseness, Beats, Bearing Faults

• Journal Bearings, Gear Faults

• Pump, Motor and Fan Faults

 

DATA COLLECTION:

• Personal Safety

• Periodic and Continuous Data Collection

• Methods of Sensor Mounting

• Bearing Load Zones

• Calculating Fmax

• Data Collection Errors

• Screening

 

BASIC VIBRATION TESTS:

• Periodic Monitoring

• Fault / Condition Analysis

• Machine Design

• Baseline Tests

• Equipment Knowledge

• Route Data Collection

• Spectral Analysis

• Fault Analysis

• Alarms and Band Screening

 

PERIODIC MONITORING:

• General Guidelines

• Equipment Selection and Prioritization

• Route Planning

• Measurement Point Selection

• Frequency of Data Collection

• Screening and Masking

 

ADVANCED VIBRATION TESTING:

• Developing Test Plans

• Performing Site Inspections

• Types of Testing

• Resonance and Critical Speed Testing

• Interference Diagrams

• Problem Reporting

 

INTERPRETING VIBRATION AMPLITUDES:

• Selecting Acceptance Criteria

• Casing vs. Rotor Data

• Gear and Roller Bearing Evaluation

• Journal Bearing Evaluation

 

COMPONENT BALANCING:

• High Spot / Light Spot / Heavy Spot

• Lag Angle and Understanding Phase

• Types of Unbalance

• Phase Change with Respect to Critical Speed

• Relationship Between Force and Vibration

• Single Plane Balancing using the Vector Method

Have a project for us?

Connect with us today to get your project underway. We’d love to discuss your particular challenge and begin the process of designing a solution today!
Contact Us Today!

Sample slides from VAI’s Cat. I Training Manual:

Sample slides from VAI’s Cat. II Training Manual:

Sample slides from VAI’s Cat. II Training Manual: